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Reader aids also provide additional relevant or background information that adds value to the lesson. These files are indicated by the icon in the margin of the textbook. Now you need to put the two together. When you make assignments link resources and tasks , Microsoft Project can provide several key pieces of information including: who is working on what tasks and when; if the resources are available when you need them to be, or are over-allocated; and more.
There are key differences, however, in the way equipment resources can be scheduled. It will be helpful, though, to track equipment resources when you need to schedule and track equipment costs or when the equipment might be needed my multiple people at the same time.
In this exercise, you learn how to establish the equipment resources for your project. In the Resource Sheet, click the next empty cell in the Resource Name column. Click the Resource tab and then click the Information button in the Properties group; the Resource Information dialog box appears.
If it is not already displayed, click the General tab in the Resource Information dialog box. Your screen should look similar to Figure The simplest way to reorganize task and resource data in Project is by sorting. Before you begin these steps, launch Microsoft Project. Click the View tab, and then click Resource Sheet. The Resource Sheet view appears.
The default table in the Resource Sheet view is the Entry table. However, you want to look at the cost per resource, which is not displayed in the Entry table. On the ribbon, click the Tables button in the Data group and then select Summary. The Summary table appears in the Resource Sheet view. If you estimate that a task will take 24 hours of working time, you would enter its duration as 3d to schedule the task over three 8-hour workdays.
If this task were to start at A. You can also schedule tasks to occur over working and nonworking time by assigning an elapsed duration to a task. Elapsed duration is the total length of working and nonworking time you expect it will take to complete a task. Suppose you own an automobile body shop. If the undercoat takes 24 hours to cure, you would enter the duration for this task as 1ed or 1 elapsed day. If you scheduled it to start at 11 A. Table shows abbreviations and meanings for actual and elapsed times in Microsoft Project.
If you have a multiyear project, it is probably not practical or even possible to track tasks that are measured in minutes or hours. You should measure task durations at the lowest level of detail or control necessary, but no lower. Easy-to-Read Tables Troubleshooting Reader Aid Although the task durations are supplied for you for the exercises in this book, you and the project team will have to estimate task durations for most real-world projects. Column 1 Column 2 1. Units b. Click the Project tab.
The Set Baseline dialog box appears. You will accept all of the default settings in this dialog box by clicking OK. Microsoft Project saves the baseline, although there is no indication in the Gantt Chart view that anything has changed. In the next few steps, you will explore some of the changes caused by saving the baseline. You can save up to eleven baselines in a single project schedule. You can save multiple baselines to record different sets of baseline values and later compare these against each other and against actual values.
On the ribbon, click the View tab and then click the down-arrow under Gantt Chart. Select More Views, and the More Views dialog box appears. Now you will switch to a different table in the Task Sheet view.
On the ribbon, click Tables, and then click Variance. The Variance table appears. This table includes both the Scheduled and Baseline columns so that you can compare them easily. Illustrated Book Tour ix c10ProjectReporting. People or organizations that might be affected by project activities are called. If you have two views displayed in a combination view and want to print the view, only the view in the pane will print. When previewing a view in print preview, you can change the number of pages visible or by selecting either the pages button.
A common activity for project managers is to schedule to share with stakeholders. To add your company name so that it prints at the top of every page, use the dialog box to add the company name to the header. A report is used to represent high-level information usually on one page. If subtasks are hidden in a view, reports that contain task lists will include only tasks.
In a report, you can only information. Multiple Choice Select the best response for the following statements. In a view, you can information. All of the above are correct. If assignments are hidden under tasks or resources in a usage view, what will the usage report show? Because you will need to pay overtime time and one-half for this additional work, you would like to get a volunteer who has a low standard rate.
Sort your resources according to Standard Rate and Max Units so that you can make your request from the least-cost group of employees. Launch Microsoft Project if it is not already running. On the ribbon, click Sort, and then click Sort by.
In the Sort by section select Type from the dropdown menu. Next to that, click Descending. In the last Then by section, select Max Units from the dropdown menu.
Next to that, click on Descending. Make sure the Permanently renumber resources box is not checked. Click the Sort button. You are reviewing your project schedule for hiring a new employee.
Click the View ribbon and then click Resource Sheet. Click the down-arrow in the Group column heading, point to Filters and then click [Custom. In the adjacent box, type HR. Click the OK button. Open the Assign Resources dialog box using the button on the Resource ribbon. Select task 9, Install drywall. In the Assign Resources dialog box, assign drywall as a resource and then assign 50 units for the drywall resource. In the Assign Resources dialog box, assign nails as a resource and then assign 5 units for the nails resource.
Close the Assign Resources dialog box. You can use an Actions tag to do this. Select task 7, Book Musicians. Activate the Assign Resources dialog box.
Click on Brenda Diaz, and then assign her to the task. Use the Actions tag to indicate that you want to reduce the number of hours resources work per day units , but keep the same duration and work. Open the Assign Resources dialog box.
For task 6, Identify and reserve locations, assign Travel as a resource at a cost of For task 18, Scene 1 vocal recording, assign Food as a resource at a cost of You need to set up a custom group that will enable you to do this.
Activate the Project Statistics box to view the costs for the project. Display the Cost table. Filter the tasks to show only the tasks that are over budget. Collapse all Production Scene summary tasks hide subtasks except for the Scene summary task with the greatest cost variance 5.
It will take a week to clean and dry the water damage. You need to reschedule the remaining work on incomplete tasks to restart when the cleanup is complete. Activate the Update Project dialog box. Reschedule uncompleted work to start after Thursday, October 22, Tasks are being completed on schedule.
Update the project as complete through July 15, Scroll the Gantt Chart bars so that the task and progress bars on the week of July 10, are visible. The management at Woodgrove has recently decided that the eight-year old commercial lending software currently in use is outdated and needs to be replaced.
Mete has been assigned as the project manager for the Request For Proposal RFP process to evaluate and select new software. This process entails determining needs, identifying vendors, requesting proposals, reviewing proposals, and selecting the software. Launch Project if it is not already running. In the New section of the Backstage area, double-click Blank Project. On the Tasks tab, in the Tasks command group, click the Mode button.
From the list, click Auto Schedule. Click the Project tab, then click Project Information. Set the start date to May 2, In the Properties group on the ribbon, click the Change Working Time button. In the Gantt Chart view, enter the following task names and durations enter all tasks, even if no duration is listed. Additional data will be available in future exercises.
For more information about the features in each lesson, refer to the Illustrated Book Tour section. They also point out items you should check or actions you should take. Take Note provides helpful hints related to particular tasks or topics. Another Way provides an alternative procedure for accomplishing a particular task. These notes provide pointers to information discussed elsewhere in the textbook or describe interesting features that are not directly addressed in the current topic or exercise.
Keys that you are instructed to press in an exercise will appear in the font shown here. A shared printer can be used by many individuals on a network. Key terms appear in bold italic. Key My Name is. Any text you are asked to key appears in blue.
Click OK. Any button on the screen you are supposed to click on or select will also appear in color. This icon notifies you that a file is available for download in the accompanying student data files.
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Students can access it online and download to their computer for off line access and access read and study on their device of preference— computer, tablet, or smartphone. By using the practice files, you will not waste time creating the samples used in the lessons, and you can concentrate on learning how to use Microsoft Project With the files and the step-by-step instructions in the lessons, you will learn by doing, which is an easy and effective way to acquire and remember new skills.
Copying the Practice Files Your instructor might already have copied the practice files before you arrive in class. However, your instructor might ask you to copy the practice files on your own at the start of class. Also, if you want to work through any of the exercises in this book on your own at home or at your place of business after class, you may want to copy the practice files.
In Internet Explorer, go to the student companion site: www. Search for your book title in the upper-right corner. Select Student Companion Site from the pop-up box. Now select Student Data Files from the center of the screen. Remember the drive name that you saved your files to. Richie Gregg D. Richie, PMP, MCTS is the founding member and managing partner of P8, LLC, which is a consulting firm that provides consulting and training in project management techniques, including advanced usage and application of Microsoft Project.
With more than 30 years of experience in the field of project management, working on projects on almost every continent, he travels all over the world as an international project management consultant and speaker. It was here that his love for both teaching and project management was discovered and developed. He began instructing in , has taught thousands people in classroom environments, and publicly spoken to thousands at a time. Video production managers must identify the production tasks, plan and manage the schedule, and communicate project information to all the members of the production team.
Microsoft Project is the perfect tool for managing a project such as this. In this lesson, you will learn how to navigate in Microsoft Project , how the software handles data, how to create a new project schedule, enter tasks, durations, and milestones into the schedule, and organize the tasks in the schedule.
Your screen may be different if default settings have been changed or if other preferences have been set. Later, you will set the option directing the software to go directly to the Gantt Chart view. Figure Microsoft Project Start screen Before you begin using Microsoft Project , you will need to become familiar with the user interface, also known as the Ribbon. This is similar to other Office applications in that the commands are in tabs, such as File, Task, Resource, Report, Project, and View.
Selecting a tab activates the ribbon. Within each ribbon, commands are organized into groups; each command has its own button, which you activate by clicking with the mouse. Project’s user interface makes it easy to find the commands you need more quickly. This view displays various task data as well as a graphical display of how the project is currently scheduled. Project Basics 3 The Gantt Chart view is the primary way of viewing the data in a project schedule.
It became the standard for visualizing project schedules in the early twentieth century when American engineer and management consultant Henry L. Gantt developed a bar chart with two main principles; 1 to measure activities by the amount of time needed to complete them; and 2 to represent the amount of the activity that should have been done in a given time.
In Microsoft Project, the Gantt Chart view is the default view. A view is a window through which you can see various elements of your project schedule. You will learn more about the Gantt Chart view in Lesson 8. A project schedule is a model of a real project — what you want to happen or what you think will happen throughout the project. The schedule contains all of the tasks, resources, time frames, and costs that might be associated with such a project. You can modify this schedule or any other project template to fit your specific project needs.
Later in this lesson you will learn how to create a project schedule from a blank template. A template is a predefined file that can be blank with the default characteristics set, or it could already contain project task and resource information.
Knowing how to navigate in Microsoft Project and how Microsoft Project handles data will increase your efficiency in locating needed information. In this exercise, you learn how to start Microsoft Project and open a template. Before you begin these steps, be sure to turn on or log on to your computer. On the Windows taskbar, click the Start button. The Start screen appears.
Microsoft Project opens. This is the start screen. From this screen you can choose to open a blank project, import information from Microsoft Excel or a SharePoint task list, open an existing project file, or open a template.
Additionally there are some slight visual variations between the two operating systems. You are encouraged to use this manual with either operating system and understand that the differences are cosmetic only and in no way affect the functionality of Microsoft Project Microsoft Project should be open. On the Start screen Figure , click the Search for online templates box located at the top of the screen.
Type annual report preparation, then press Enter. The template is displayed and a preview of it is on the left of the screen as in Figure Figure Preview of the Annual Report Preparation template 2. Double-click the Annual Report Preparation template graphic. The template is downloaded to your system, then opens a new project based on the template in the Gantt Chart view and closes the New Project screen. However, it is recommended that they are stored in the default Microsoft templates folder.
Project Basics 5 You have just opened a project schedule from a template in Microsoft Project. A project schedule is a model of a real project — what you want to happen or what you think will happen. The schedule contains tasks, resources, time frames, and costs that might be associated with such a project. Later in this lesson, you will learn how to create a project schedule from a blank template. This is located in the upper right corner of the screen, just to the left of the close application button.
See Figure Using the resizing feature, change the width of the reduced window and watch how the ribbon changes with the changing width. Figure shows an example of the ribbon at a reduced level of resolution. Figure Command Groups show less buttons The Ribbon at a reduced level of resolution Commands are accessed when button is selected 3.
This will set the window back to full screen. Note the automatic change in the ribbon as shown in Figure In this exercise, you changed the resolution of the Project window and the software automatically changed the resolution of the ribbon command groups. This is where the user will change options, save, print, import and export, set file properties, and much more. USE the project schedule you created in the previous exercise. Click the File tab.
On the left navigation bar click New. This screen is similar to the Start screen that appeared when you first started the software. From this screen you can open an existing schedule, start a new project from a blank template, or import from Excel or SharePoint. Click Print in the left navigation bar. This section provides a print preview, allows the user to change printers and the print settings, as well as setting the page options such as headers, footers, and margins. Click Share in the left navigation bar.
Here the user can send the project file as an email attachment or sync it with SharePoint. Click Export in the left navigation bar. In this exercise, you reviewed some sections of the Backstage Area. Throughout this text, you will return to this area to check and change options.
More correctly, it is three databases in one, as shown in Figure The first is a task database. This is where all task-related information such as the task name, start, finish, cost, duration, and work is kept. The second is the resource database. All resource-related information is stored in the resource database, such as resource name, type of resource, standard rate pay rate , resource group they belong to, the base calendar they are assigned, and the maximum number of units for the resource.
The third database is called the assignment database. When a resource is assigned to a task, all of the assignment-related information for each specific resource on each specific task is stored here. Your screen should be on the Gantt Chart view. Place your mouse cursor on the Task Name column heading, but do not click it. You will notice that a ScreenTip appears, displaying the title of the column Task Name and its actual name Name. Place the mouse cursor on the Resource Name column heading and observe the ScreenTip that appears as in Figure You will notice that this field has the same name as the one in Figure You have just witnessed two of the databases.
On the ribbon, click the Task Usage button, located in the Task Views command group. This is one of two views that displays information from the assignment database. Note the Task Usage button is a two-part button, with a submenu on the bottom half. Select the name cell of task 1, Perform Initial Planning. This is the Scroll to Task feature which will be discussed later.
Figure Task Usage View Task Resource Planned work hours by resource Table shows the default view and the databases from which they collect information. Knowing which database has the information will help later in knowing not only which view to activate but will also assist in developing custom reports.
In this exercise, you viewed some of basic views in the software and the database that held the information. In the next exercise, you will become familiar with more views. When you want to look at data from any one of the databases, you must activate a view.
In this exercise, you will learn about some of the common, default views and how to activate them. On the View tab, select the Calendar view from the Task View command group. Figure Calendar View 10 Lesson 1 2. The Calendar view provides task data in a calendar format. It is helpful when you need to get project information to those project team members who may not have, or know how to operate, Microsoft Project.
On the View tab, select the Network Diagram view. Figure Network Diagram view 4. The network diagram view displays the logical sequencing of the tasks and the relationship these tasks have with other tasks in the project. It is helpful during planning and execution and can show the complexity of a project. On the View tab, select the Resource Usage view. Click the Resource Name column once to highlight the entire column. On the ribbon, in the Data command group, click the Outline button then select Hide Subtasks.
Auto fit the Resource Name column. You do this by placing your cursor on the right side of the column name and double-clicking. Click the Expand button at the left of resource 1, Audit Committee. Your screen should look like Figure In other words, it is helpful to see the assignments each resource has been assigned.
This is opposite from the Task Usage view you selected earlier, which categorized assignments by task. CLOSE the file. When asked to save the file, click No. In this exercise, you viewed three additional, commonly used views in the software. Now that you are familiar with how to navigate in the program, you will now create your own project schedule. You should perform all the planning processes associated with the project management methodology of your organization before entering any information into Microsoft Project When you create a new project schedule, the first task is to set a start date for your project.
Opening a New Blank Project Schedule Rather than use a project schedule template, you can create a new, blank project schedule that you can fine-tune to your specific project. In this exercise, you open a new project schedule. On the Start screen, click New. On the screen, double-click the Blank Project option. A new blank project schedule appears and you are briefly notified that new tasks will be created in the new Manually Scheduled Mode, which is discussed in lesson 2. Your screen will look like Figure LEAVE the project schedule open to use in the next exercise.
In this exercise, you created a new, blank project schedule. Now you will begin to add details to the project schedule, such as start date, tasks, durations, and calendars. This information should be entered in the sequence presented. When using Microsoft Project the user must perform data entry steps in a specific order. Entering information out of sequence could result in inaccurate information or re-entry of the data.
For example, if you enter duration information before setting the calendar options, the durations entered will be altered when calendar options are set. In this exercise, you create a start date for the new project you have created.
USE the project schedule you opened in the previous exercise. In the Properties group click the Project Information button. The Project Information dialog box appears. Single-click the drop-down arrow next to the Start Date text box once. For this exercise, you will change the project start date to January 4, Project Basics 13 3. In the January calendar, click January 4th. Click OK at the bottom of the dialog box.
In this exercise, you specified a start date for your project. You can schedule a project from either the start date or the end date, but not both. Most projects should be scheduled from a start date. Scheduling from a start date causes all tasks to start as soon as possible, and it gives you the greatest scheduling flexibility.
Scheduling from a finish date can be helpful in determining when a project must start if the finish date is fixed. Saving the Newly Created Project Schedule Once you have created a new project schedule and specified the start date, you need to save the file.
On the ribbon, click the File tab and then click the Save option. Because you have not previously saved the project schedule, the Save-As section is activated. In the Save As section, click Computer then select Browse. Locate and select the solutions folder for this lesson as directed by your instructor. Click Save.
Leave the project schedule open to use in the next exercise. In this exercise, you named and saved your project file. It is important to get into the habit of saving your file frequently so that minimal information is lost should you experience a software or hardware malfunction. Under the File tab, click Options in the navigation bar, then select Save. In the Save Options dialog box, under Save Projects, select the Auto Save Every check box and then specify the time interval at which you want Microsoft Project to automatically save your file.
You can set your project calendar to reflect the working days and hours of your project, as well as nonworking times such as evenings, weekends, and holidays. Defining Project Calendars In this exercise, you define the calendar for your project and set up two exception days holidays.
On the ribbon, in the Properties command group, select the Change Working Time button. The Change Working Time dialog box is displayed. Click the For Calendar drop-down arrow. In the dropdown menu, select Standard, if it is not already selected. Using the scroll control at the right of the calendar, navigate until the calendar displays January, Click the date box for January Day and press Enter. Single-click the name of the exception you just entered. Then click the Details button.
The Details dialog box appears. Under Recurrence Pattern, click Yearly. Click the The: button, and use the arrows next to each selection box to select Third, Monday, and January. In the Range of Recurrence section, select the option for End after: then type 3, then press Enter. Scroll until calendar in the Change Working Time dialog box displays May, Click once on May 30, In the next blank exception name cell, type Memorial Day and press Enter.
The Details dialog box reappears. Click the The: button, and use the arrows next to each selection box to select Last, Monday, and May. In the Range of Recurrence section, select the option for End after: then type 3. SAVE the project schedule. Exceptions can also be used to indicate additional time away from the project, such as company-wide training days or morale events.
A calendar is a scheduling tool that determines the standard working time and nonworking time such as evening or holidays for the project, resources, and tasks. Calendars are used to determine how tasks and resources assigned to these tasks are scheduled.
It can serve as a project calendar or a task calendar. It defines the normal working and nonworking times. A task calendar defines working and nonworking times for a task, regardless of the settings in the project calendar. Base calendars can be created and assigned to a project, a resource, or a task. Project, resource, and task calendars are used in scheduling tasks. If resources are assigned to tasks, the task is scheduled based upon the resource calendar.
Cross Ref You will learn more about base calendars, project calendars, and resource calendars in Lesson 2. In Microsoft Project, the tasks you define contain the details about each activity or event that must occur in order for your project to be completed.
These details include the order and duration of tasks, critical tasks, and resource requirements. Tasks are the most basic building blocks of any project schedule.
In this exercise, you will enter a single task in each row of the Entry table. Click the first blank cell directly below the Task Name column heading.
Type Review screenplay and press Enter. Enter the following task names below the Review screenplay task name. Press Enter after each task name. Develop scene blocking and schedule Develop production layouts Identify and reserve locations Book musicians Book dancers Reserve audio recording equipment Reserve video recording equipment 4.
As you enter new tasks, you will note that each cell automatically wraps the text. The Task ID sometimes simply referred to as ID is a unique number that is assigned to each task in the project.
However, you can define the duration of days, weeks, and months for your project. Click the File tab, select Options, then click the Schedule option, and look under Calendar options for this project: See Figure Because different tasks usually take different amounts of time to complete, each task is assigned a separate duration.
Do not confuse duration with elapsed time or work effort. By contrast, a task can have four work resources assigned and equate to 24 hours of effort in a single, eight hour work day.
This applies to start dates and finish dates as well. Click the first cell in the Duration column next to the task 1, Review screenplay. The Duration field for task 1 is selected. Type 3w and then press Enter. The value 3 wks appears in the Duration field. Enter the following durations for the remaining tasks.
Figure Gantt Chart showing task durations entered. You may notice that for those tasks where you entered approximate durations, the software did not draw a corresponding Gantt Chart bar.
This is the result of Manual Scheduling. Later in this lesson you will change the scheduling mode to Automatic Scheduling. Recall that when you set up your project calendar in the previous exercise, the working times for your project were Monday through Friday from A. No work is scheduled on evenings or weekends because these have been defined as nonworking times. Although the task durations are supplied for you for the exercises in this book, you and the project team will have to estimate task durations for most real-world projects.
Risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, will have an impact on your project, either positively or negatively. Inaccurate task duration estimates negative risk decreases the likelihood of completing the project on time, within budget and to specification. Developing good estimates is worth the time and effort. In the Manual mode which is the default , Project allows the user some flexibility in entering information. However, this mode does not allow the software to schedule tasks in a dynamic manner, meaning it requires more attention to maintain the schedule.
Automatic scheduling mode reduces the f lexibility of entering approximate durations and dates. This mode does allow the user to create a dynamic schedule which requires less maintenance. Switching from Manual to Automatic Scheduling When you entered durations earlier, you noticed how the software dealt with approximate duration information — it did not draw a Gantt bar.
In this exercise you will learn how to change the scheduling mode. You can do this for an entire project or you can do it on a task-by-task basis, depending on your needs. By default, all new tasks are set to manual scheduling. Select the Task Name for task 1, Review screenplay. Click the Task tab. Then, in the Tasks command group, click the Auto Schedule button. Notice the change in the Gantt Chart bar for task 1.
Select the duration cell of task 3, Develop production layouts. Type 1mo and press Enter. This sets the duration for that task. Single-click task name column heading to select all tasks.
On the ribbon, select the Auto Schedule button. Note the duration of task 8 now displays 1 day with a question mark behind it. Select the duration cell of task 8, Reserve audio recording equipment. Key 5d and press Enter.
Click the File tab then select Options. In the Project Options dialog box, in the navigation bar on the left side of the dialog box, click Schedule. Look in the Scheduling options for this project: section. Note that you have only changed the options for this file, not the behavior of the software. Click OK to close the options dialog box. Notice that at the bottom of the screen, on the status bar, that all new tasks are auto scheduled.
In this exercise you changed the scheduling mode for a single task then changed it for all entered tasks. You then changed the scheduling mode for all new tasks to be entered into the file. Creating a Milestone A milestone represents a major event or a significant point in a project.
In Microsoft Project, milestones are represented as a task with zero duration. On the Task ribbon, in the Insert command group, click the Milestone button. Notice that a duration of zero days has already been entered. In the Name cell of the newly created milestone, type Pre-Production complete and press Enter.
In the Task Name column, click the name of task 1, Review screenplay. Microsoft Project inserts and numbers the new milestone as ID 1. Notice that the other tasks after this new task insertion point have been renumbered. Type Pre-Production begins and press Enter.
To insert multiple new tasks, select multiple tasks and then press Insert. The same number of new tasks will be inserted as the number you selected. A sample WBS for this project is shown in Figure Create Summary Tasks After you enter tasks in your project, it can be helpful to organize your project by grouping related tasks into phases, or groups of closely related tasks that encompass a major section of your project.
The phases, represented by summary tasks, identify the major phases and sub-phases in your project. A summary task is made up of and summarizes all of the tasks within its hierarchical structure, which could also include other summary tasks, detail tasks, or subtasks that fall below it. A work breakdown structure WBS is the hierarchical decomposition of the work to complete the project.
Figure depicts a box-type, or graphical, WBS for the case study project you are working on in this book. There are other WBS formats that can be used but these are the two most common.
Select tasks 1 through On the Task ribbon, in the Insert command group, click the Summary button. A new summary task row is inserted above the selected tasks, all selected tasks are shifted down and renumbered, and they are all now part of this new summary task.
Type the following task names below task 11, Pre-Production complete. Production Post-Production Note that each of these became part of the previous section. You want each of these to become a summary task. Select tasks 12 and On the ribbon, in the Schedule command group, select the Outdent button. Click the name of task 13, Post-Production, and press Insert twice. Two blank tasks are inserted above the Post-Production task. Type the following task names and durations below task 12, Production.
Task Name Duration Production begins 0d Production complete 0d 8. Type the following tasks names and durations below task 15, Post-Production. Select tasks 13 and On the Task ribbon, in the Schedule group, click the Indent button. Tasks 13 and 14 are indented and task 12 becomes a summary task. All of the selected tasks will be indented and a new summary task line will appear. Select tasks 16 and Tasks 16 and 17 are indented and task 15 becomes a summary task.
Figure Summary task Gantt bar Gantt Chart showing summary and indented tasks. The appearance of the Production and Post-production summary tasks will change once additional tasks are added in later lessons. You have just organized your tasks into phases. Working with phases and tasks in Microsoft Project is similar to working with an outline in Microsoft Word.
You can create phases by indenting and outdenting tasks, and you can collapse an entire task list into its phase components. This approach works from general to specific. This approach works from specific to general. In the Auto Scheduling mode, the links create a sequential dependency in which one task depends on the start or completion of another task in order to begin or end.
Linking Two Tasks When you created your project, all of the tasks in the project schedule were scheduled to start on the same date — the project start date. You must create a dependency, or link, between tasks to correctly reflect the order in which work must be completed.
In this exercise, you will link two tasks to reflect the actual order in which they will occur. Select tasks 2 and 3. Tasks 2 and 3 are now linked with a finish-to-start relationship. Select the name cells of tasks 3 and 4. Microsoft Project changed the start date of task 4 to the next working day following the completion of task 3.
Note that because January 18 was a nonworking day the Martin Luther King holiday you set up , task 3 does not finish until January 25 and task 4 does not start until January If necessary, scroll the Gantt Chart to January 24 so that the link you just created is visible. When you started the exercise in this section, all of the tasks in the project schedule were scheduled to start on the same date — the project start date. You have just linked two tasks to reflect the actual order in which they will occur.
A link is a logical connection between tasks that controls sequence and defines the relationship between two or more tasks. These two tasks have a finish-to-start relationship.
The first task is called the predecessor, a task whose start or end date determines the start or finish of another task or tasks. Any task can be a predecessor for one or more tasks. The second task is called the successor, a task whose start or finish is driven by another task or tasks. Again, any task can be a successor to one or more predecessor tasks. The second task occurs after the first task.
This is called a sequence, or the chronological order in which tasks must occur. Tasks can have only one of four types of task relationships, as shown in Table Do not get task relationships in Microsoft Project confused with task dependencies in project management.
A dependency is a need or a condition that exists between two elements. Knowing the dependency is an important factor in defining the task relationships. The first task MUST be done before the second task, i. Lags will be discussed in detail in Lesson A music track must be recorded before it can be edited. Start-to-start SS The start date of the predecessor task determines the start date of the successor task. Booking musicians and Booking dancers are related tasks and can occur simultaneously.
Finish-to-finish FF The finish date of the predecessor task determines the finish date of the successor task. Tasks that require the use of specific equipment must end when the equipment rental ends.
Start-to-finish SF This relationship type is rarely used. The start date of the predecessor task determines the finish date of the successor task.
The time when the production sound studio becomes available determines when rehearsals must end. The first task does not necessarily have to be done in order to complete the second task, i.
It is preferred, but not absolutely necessary. Dependencies of this type can have any one of the relationships. External dependencies are usually outside of the control of the project team.
Select the names of tasks 4 through Note the new feature in Project where the row height indicators extend out into the Gantt Chart area. Tasks 4 through 11 are now linked with a finish-to-start relationship. Select the View tab. In the Zoom group, click the Entire Project button. Click the name of the task that you wish to set as the successor. Then on the Task ribbon, click the Information button, and then click the Predecessors tab.
Click the first cell in the Task Name column, and then click the arrow to select the task you wish to set as the predecessor. Linking Milestones Now that you have linked some of the tasks in the project schedule, you will link milestones across summary tasks. Linking milestones to each other reflects the sequential nature of the overall phases. Select the name of task 11, Pre-Production complete, and, while holding down the Ctrl key, select the name of task 13, Production begins. This is how you select nonadjacent tasks in a table in Microsoft Project.
In the Schedule group click the Link the Selected Tasks button. Tasks 11 and 13 are linked with a finish-to-start relationship. Select the predecessor cell of task 16, Production complete. Type 14 and press Enter. Tasks 14 and 16 are linked with a finish-to-start relationship. They will move to the right side of the Gantt bar chart once you add and link more subtasks in a future lesson.
Point to the predecessor task until the pointer changes to a four-arrow star. Drag the pointer up or down to the task bar of the successor task. Microsoft Project will link the two tasks. Notice that while you are dragging, the pointer image changes to a chain link. Of course the schedule is linked with resources, budgets and dependencies.
This is because of two reasons. One, MS Project does more than just create a schedule it can establish dependencies among tasks, it can create constraints, it can resolve resource conflicts, and it can also help in reviewing cost and schedule performance over the duration of the project. So it does help in more than just creating a Schedule. This it makes sense for Microsoft to market MS Project as a Plan Creator rather than over-simplifying it as just a schedule creator.
Two, it is due to limitation of generally accepted form of English language, where a schedule can be both in a noun as well as verb form. As a noun, a Schedule is like a time table or a series of things to be done or of events to occur at or during a particular time or period.
And in the verb form, schedule is to plan for a certain date. The distinction is important for you as a project manager, but as far as MS project is concerned the noun form of Schedule is a Plan. Of course, a project manager should also be able to answer other project-related questions as well. Here you have options to open a new plan, some other plans, and even a new plan template. Click the Blank Project Tab. The following screen pops up.
Toolbar controls have heterogeneous sizes and are classified in visually distinguishable Groups. Groups are collections of related commands. Each tab is divided into multiple groups. Each tab contains several commands. If you point at a command you will see a description in a tooltip. Active view is the one you can see in the main window at a given point in time. The View label just tells you about the view you are using currently. Project can display a single view or multiple views in separate panes.
Because once you enter one of the two, and other project tasks, constraints and dependencies, MS Project will calculate the other date. It is always a good practice to use a start date even if you know the deadline for the project. In the list of available templates, click Blank Project.
A dialog box appears. Click OK to accept the start date. Click the arrow on the Current Date dropdown box. A list appears containing three base calendars. Now let us add exceptions. Step 3: Adding Exceptions to Calendar Exceptions are used to modify a Project calendar to have a non-standard workday or a non-working day.
You can also allot unique working hours for a particular resource as well. Here is an example to create a non-working day, which could be because of a holiday or office celebrations or events other than the standard office work effort. Change Working Time dialog box appears.
This date is now scheduled as a non-working day for the project. You can also verify the changed color indicated in the calendar within the dialog box as below. Click Ok to close. You can modify the resource calendar to accommodate flex-time, vacation time, training time, etc. Also remember, Resource Calendar can only be applied to work resources and not to material and cost resources.
By default when we create the resources in a plan, the resource calendar matches the Standard base calendar. And any changes you make to the Project Calendar, gets reflected automatically in resource calendars, except when you create an exception in the resource calendar. In that case even if you update the project calendar, the exception in resource calendar is not affected.
Select the resource for whom you want to create an exception. In example below I have chosen John. The Change Working Time dialog box appears. In the following screen you can see we have chosen John. Double-click the [default] cell below the Name column heading.
We have chosen Tuesday and Wednesday. Click Set day s to these specific working times. Change the time. Select the resource for whom you want to change work schedule. We have chosen John again.
Click OK to close the Dialog box. You will now see all Fridays are greyed out in the calendar. You can record some top level information for your.
Under Info Tab go to Project Information. Click arrow near Project Information to click Advanced Properties. A dialog box opens, you can type in the changes as required. WBS identifies the deliverable at the lowest level as work package.
So a task is action-oriented, and the work package is the deliverable or a result of one or more tasks being performed. There is a significant amount of confusion between what constitutes an activity and what constitutes a task within the project management community.
But for MS Project, a task is the effort and action required to produce a particular project deliverable. Enter the task name. In the following screen, we have entered 5 different tasks.
Enter Duration A duration of the task is the estimated amount of time it will take to complete a task. As a project manager you can estimate a task duration using expert judgment, historical information, analogous estimates or parametric estimates.
You can enter task duration in terms of different dimensional units of time, namely minutes, hours, days, weeks, and months. You can use abbreviations for simplicity and ease as shown in the following table. So 1 day is not equivalent to 24 hours but has 8 hours of work for the day. Of course, you can change these defaults anytime you want.
You can apply this to all projects or a specific project that you are working on currently. One of the neat tricks MS Project possesses is, it considers duration of the task in work- day sense. So if you have a non-working day in between, it accommodates this and ensures a task that takes 16 hours to complete to end on the 3rd day.
In other words, if you have a task that needs 16 hours to complete starting on Monday AM if this is the time your work day starts, and 8 hours being total work hours in a day , and Tuesday being a holiday, the task will logically end on the evening of Wednesday.
Enter the duration. Task 1 in the following screenshot You can also enter Start and Finish date and MS Project will calculate the duration on its own. Task 3 and Task 4 in the following screenshot Note: In the above screenshot, Task 6 is scheduled to start on Sunday, which is a non- working day and ends on Wednesday. So essentially, one would believe that with these 3 days Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, the duration calculated would be 3 days. But MS Project calculates it as 4 days.
So one needs to be careful when choosing the start date of the task. Because for any successive operation, MS Project considers that Task 6 will take 4 days.
The next time, you change the start date, the Finish date changes to reflect this 4-day duration. Elapsed Duration Elapsed Duration is the time that elapses while some event is occurring which does not require any resources.
Elapsed duration for a task can be used in instances where a task will go on round-the-clock without any stoppage. A normal workday has 8 hours, and an elapsed day duration will have 24 hours. The task also continues over non-working holidays and vacations and working days. So 1ew is seven hour days. And it takes 4 days for this to happen. It does not need a resource or a work effort, and all you are doing is waiting for it to dry.
You can use 4ed as the time duration, which signifies 4 elapsed days, the paint can dry regardless of whether it is a weekend or if it falls on a holiday. Here in this example, the drying occurs over 24 hours over the weekend.
They are used as major progress points to manage project success and stakeholder expectations. They are primarily used for review, inputs and budgets.
Mathematically, a milestone is a task of zero duration. And they can be put where there is a logical conclusion of a phase of work, or at deadlines imposed by the project plan. There are two ways you can insert a milestone. You can see the milestone appear with a rhombus symbol in the Gantt Chart View on the right. MS Project converts it to a Milestone. But one can also convert a task of non-zero duration into a Milestone.
This is rarely used and causes confusion. Double-click a particular Task name. Task Information dialog box opens. Create Summary Task There can be a huge number of tasks in a project schedule, it is therefore a good idea to have a bunch of related tasks rolled up into a Summary Task to help you organize the plan in a better way. It helps you organize your plan into phases. In MS Project , you can have several number of sub-tasks under any higher level task. These higher level tasks are called Summary Task.
At an even higher level, they are called Phases. Remember because summary task is not a separate task entity but a phase of the project with several sub-tasks in it, the duration of the summary task is from the start of the first sub-task to the finish of the last sub-task.
This will be automatically calculated by MS Project. Of course, you can enter a manual duration of the summary task as well which could be different from the automatically calculated duration. MS Project will keep track of both but this can cause significant confusion. In most cases, you should ensure that there is no manually entered duration for any task you will be using as a Summary Task.
If you would like to group Task 4 and Task 5 into a Summary Task 1. You can do it in two ways. Method 1 Select the names of Task 4 and Task 5. Rename it to Summary Task 1.
Method 2 You can click Task 4 row. You can rename the Task. Here it is renamed as Summary Task 1. Now select Task 4 and Task 5. For example, Task 2 can start once Task 1 has finished. These dependencies are called Links. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide does not define the term dependency, but refers to it as a logical relationship, which in turn is defined as a dependency between two activities, or between an activity and a milestone.
In MS Project, the first task is called a predecessor because it precedes tasks that depend on it. The following task is called the successor because it succeeds, or follows tasks on which it is dependent. Any task can be a predecessor for one or more successor tasks.
Likewise, any task can be a successor to one or more predecessor tasks. There are only four types of task dependencies, here we present them with examples. Most used. One does not have to finish collecting survey response before starting the tabulation. Least used. Method 1 Select the two tasks you want to link. In the following screenshot taken as an example, we have selected names, Task 1 and Task 2.
Task 1 and Task 2 are linked with a Finish-to-Start relationship. A drop down box appears with all Tasks defined in the project. Choose the predecessor task.
Click OK. Here I have chosen Task 3. All tasks get linked. To select non-adjacent tasks, hold down Ctrl key and select each task separately. Respect Links If you are in Manually Scheduled mode, any change in duration of the predecessor task will not reflect on Start date of Task 4. Scheduling is controlled in two ways.
Manual Scheduling: This is done to quickly capture some details without actually scheduling the tasks. It calculates values such as task durations, start dates, and finish dates automatically. It takes into accounts all constraints, links and calendars. For example, at Lucerne Publishing, the new book launch plan has been reviewed by the resources who will carry out the work and by other project stakeholders.
Although you expect the plan to change somewhat as you learn more about the book launch, you now have enough confidence in the overall plan to switch from manual to automatic task scheduling.
Converting Task to Automatic Schedule We have three different methods to convert a task to automatic schedule. Method 1 If you want to change the mode for a particular task, say Task 5 in the following example. Click on Task Mode cell in the same row. Then, click the down arrow to open a dropdown box, you can select Auto Scheduled. Method 3 To switch completely to Auto Schedule mode: Toggle the scheduling mode of the plan by clicking the New Tasks status bar at the bottom-left and then selecting Auto scheduling mode.
Go to File tab and click Options. They can be people, equipment, facilities, funding, or anything except labor required for the completion of a project task. Optimum Resource Scheduling is the key to successful project management.
Travel expenses, food expenses, etc. For example, paint being used while painting a wall. Note: Be aware of the crucial difference between People and Equipment resources.
People resources will have limited work hours, say 6, 8 or 12 hours. Equipment resources have different working capacities of 2, 8 or 24 hours and could have maintenance breaks as well. Also note, that it is possible multiple people resources might be using one equipment resource, or one equipment might be accomplishing multiple tasks. Enter Work Resource Names You can enter resource names according to your convenience. Click the cell directly below the Resource Name heading column.
Enter Resources as an individual person, job function or group. The resource is available full-time on each workday. If a resource does not represent an individual person but a job function, where a group of people with the same skill set can work on the task, we can enter larger Max Units to represent the number of people in the group. Click the Max. Units field for the Engineers resource. Press Enter.
Units would mean you expect the resource capacity to be lower than a full-time resource. Click the cell directly below Resource Name heading column. Enter Resource as an individual or job function. You can also enter overtime rates for work resources.
Standard rates are calculated on per hour basis. Costs per use on the other hand are costs that do not vary with task. Cost per use is a set fee used up to complete a task. There are three types of resources: work, material, and cost. Like paint being used while painting a wall. People resources will have limited work hours say 6, 8 or 12 hours. Equipment resources can have different working capacities of 2, 8 or 24 hours and could have maintenance breaks as well.
Also note that it is possible multiple people resources might be using one equipment resource, or one equipment might be accomplishing multiple tasks. Cost resources do not use pay rates. Remember cost per use and cost resources are two different things. Cost resources are financial cost associated with a task, like travel expenses, food expenses, etc.
The cost value of cost resource is only assigned when you assign cost resource to a task. MS Project will not automatically apply overtime calculations. Click the cell directly below Resource Name heading column to create Resources.
Click the Std. Rate field for each resource to costs in hourly default , daily, weekly, monthly and yearly rates. In the following example, the resource Rasmus is left at zero. Click the Ovt. Rate field to enter overtime rates. Double-click the Resource, a Resource Information dialog box opens. Click on Notes tab. Hovering over it will make the note appear. Set Up Cost Resources You can use a cost resource to represent a financial cost associated with a task in a plan.
Examples of cost resources are travel, food, entertainment and training. So it is obvious that cost resources do no work on a task and do not affect scheduling of a task. Cost value of the cost resource is entered when assigning it to a task.
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In the following example, Assign Resources is the project summary task identified as Task 0.